About Rich Laburn
Rich Laburn is filmmaker, photographer and writer who is based at Londolozi Game Reserve in South Africa. Spending his time capturing scenes of the wild and communicating the beauty of the African bushveld, he runs the Londolozi Blog as a way to entertain and engage people wishing to visit these wild lands.
Latest Posts by Rich Laburn
You can never predict the future, it is not a gift that is possessed by human kind. One can never wake up with an exact path described, planned and executed. There is too much in the world that can change your course and alter the way your path winds. The South African bush is the same. Each of us head out every morning with some sort of plan, however, we all know inside that nothing out here can be guaranteed. This is what we live for and what, as a guest, one experiences. This is what drives us to explore. and how we strive to live our lives in this wilderness. Taking each step with anticipation and with an open mind. Come and live our week of surprises with us.
A great way to start off a week in the bush. An African Sunrise. Trevor McCall-Peat
Successful week for the Cheetah residents. Trevor McCall-Peat
A rarity during the day, and is the most impressive spotting from any tracker. Chameleon in the day. Trevor McCall-Peat
Deadly stare. A Boomslang. Trevor McCall-Peat
The Mashaba young female, safe in the fork of a tree as the Tsalala pride lurk below. Travor McCall-Peat
A male Cheetah in the beautiful morning light. Josh Lee
A Sparta pride lioness rests in the Maxabeni after a big meal. Josh Lee
Backlit Vomba Young Male. Josh Lee
The Vomba young male stalks a herd of Impala unsuccessfully. Josh Lee
A morning together preparing for a night of battle. Josh Lee
Bonding time in the Majingilane coalition. Josh Lee
Showing off his protractive claws. Josh Lee
Amazing night photography on an ODP training course. Josh Lee
Some of the strongest in the sky. A Martial Eagle. Mike Sutherland
Great interaction between Lions and Hyena. Here the Sparta Pride chased this Hyena from their kill. Mike Sutherland
A quick glance up as the Tamboti female passes a vehicle on a morning territorial patrol. Mike Sutherland
More Elephant textures. Always room to play with crops and angles with these amazing animals. Mike Sutherland
My favourite of the week. A Tsalala cub with innocent eyes.
Written by: Mike Sutherland
Photographed by: Mike Sutherland, Trevor McCall-Peat and Josh Lee
In my short time of attempting any form of bird photography I have found it incredibly frustrating. With that in mind I thought I would explore the art of the possible and find out a few tips and tricks on how to photograph birds. Now, after doing some research I realised that it only gets less frustrating once you come to terms with the fact that patience is a virtue! So this leads me to my first piece of advice for the day…
Patience, patience, patience. Now patience with the birds is one thing, but patience with yourself is another. With bird photography, particularly with birds in flight, you need to be prepared for failure. Sometimes you can literally take three or four hundred photos and perhaps get one or two “keepers” at best. It must be remembered that every perfect shot of a bird in flight that you might see is invariably the product of hours of frustration and hundreds of blurred attempts previously.
Capture their behaviour
In order to do this, there is a certain amount of knowledge about the birds that is needed. For example, understanding the signs just before a roller is about to do his display, or reading the body language of a bird that is about to take flight.
Feeding birds, particularly those hawking insects, will often return to the same perch. Focus on the perch and wait for the bird to return in order to get a shot of it landing, wings spread. Sometimes a bird that has caught something and returned to it’s perch will toss it’s prey in the air in order to re-position it for easier passage down the throat – if you are ready for this you may get lucky with a well timed shot.
In this white fronted bee-eater shot, knowledge of the bird’s behaviour ensured Chris Kane-Berman captured this shot of it re-positioning it’s meal.
Nothing fascinates more than capturing a bird in flight, but if you’re not careful, you’ll only get a blur. To stop the action cold, you need to quicken the shutter speed to at least 1/1000th of a second. The fast shutter will be enable you to freeze the action. Consider also the species of bird you are shooting – a small, fast flying bird might need a shutter speed of over 1/2000th of a second, whereas a large, soaring eagle might only require 1/1000th of a second or less.
This photo of a juvenile yellow billed kite came out sharp thanks to a 1/4000th shutter speed. Although this is faster than required for a bird like this, rather too fast a shutter than too slow.
Check your reflexes
Compared to mammals, birds are not only small, but very fast. You have to be thinking in advance of what you are going to do – whether it is panning the lens with the bird, or pressing the shutter in time as it takes off. By the time you have seen the bird spread it’s wings to take off, passed the message from your brain to your finger and released the shutter, it is invariably too late – you need to constantly think of releasing the shutter before the bird flies – this will reduce your reaction time and help get the shot.
Quick reflexes ensured that Duncan Maclarty managed to freeze this image of a white fronted bee eater as it left it’s perch.
Settings are important
Everyone has their own preference when it comes to settings. The non-negotiable however, as mentioned previously, is a fast shutter speed. How you achieve that is up to you. Some important points to remember are:
- Up your ISO – this will help with a fast shutter speed and if you have good light, a high ISO won’t result in as much noise as a high ISO in low light – most modern DSLR’s will show up very little noise in good light with an ISO setting of up to 1000
- Up your aperture – although this will lower you shutter speed, so bear that in mind, it allows a bit more room for error in your focal point, as it brings more of the image into focus
- Continuous focus – this will help you track a bird in flight as your lens and camera will continually re-focus as you track a bird
- Continuous shooting – taking one shot at a time will limit your chances of success – set your camera to it’s highest rate of frames per second to improve your odds.
The right gear
Bird photography is one area where you can’t get away with anything less than top quality equipment. A decent camera body with a mega-pixel count that will allow for a significant crop is a must. Anything less than a 300mm lens will battle to capture a decent image – a fixed focal length lens of 400 or 500mm is ideal – not only are birds small, they will seldom let you get as close as mammals, so the reach of a long lens is usually needed.
With a big lens, the next requirement will be a support system. Most of these lenses weigh a fair amount so operating them hand-held can be tough. A good quality tripod or beanbag is a must.
A hyde or some sort of cover can be a useful tool in allowing you to get a bit closer to capture the image you are looking for.
Other than that, a fair bit of luck always helps! Please feel free to add to these tips in the comments below…
At nine days old and spending at least two hours a day, this was one of the only pictures I could get of these Ashy Flycatcher chicks
A Hammerkop fishes at the causeway
A White-fronted bee-eater takes off from its perch in search of prey. They are incredibly agile fliers with acute eyesight, allowing them to hunt on the wing with swift manouvers.
Pied Kingfisher whilst hovering above the water.
A lilac breasted roller just after take off
Written by Kate Neill
Jeremy Luski shared the following images he took when photographing wildlife, nature and stunning skies and landscape in South Africa.
A crescent moon rises over a pan while gin and tonics are in hand during a drinks stop in the bush
Two of the Majingilane males looking very regal while looking on as a herd of impala pass by, not a snack worth the energy for them!
Not an easy picture to achieve as the light from the sky can often create a silhouette and the colours of the bird do not come out. For a shot like this I would recommend spot metering and to expose for the bird. European rollers often don’t sit still long enough to get a picture, making this a image a spectacular achievement.
The Makhotini Male leopard relaxing in the low veld heat, decided to lift his head for a quick picture before collapsing back onto the ground.
Today seems to be a day of alliteration and here you can See the Sun Setting over the Sand river.
The green in the eyes is accentuated with with green grass growing into front of the leopards face.
Two Grey Louries (also known as grey go-away birds) perched on a twig looking out for anything that might be of danger to them
Stopping for a short break and drink before carrying on with a territorial stroll.
Woodlands Kingfisher is a migrant bird and they movw into the equatorial zone in the dry season. It is a wonderful sign of summer when the well known call is heard in the early days of summer.
The sunset colours at this time of year are truly spectacular and the landscape of this rocky outcrop has been photographed beautifully by Jeremy.
The ‘rule’ of not cutting off the tail seems to be a recurring theme amongst the blogs these days and here is a perfect example of how crucial it can be to creating a beautiful image.
Photographed and shared by guest Jeremy Luski
Photography is a way of expression. It is a medium for story telling and it is an extremely important as a way to share that story and your experience of your travels. Here’s a few notes on photographing throughout the seasons, in this case, specifically in the African bush, when shooting wildlife and nature and animals.
Understand the seasons
March through May is temperate as the season changes from summer to the start of winter and the days are mild and warm with the nights becoming cooler. There is a slight drop in temperature and you are able to head out on game drive slightly earlier in the afternoons in order get more time out in the bush in the daylight. After the rains in summer the bush is still lovely and lush which makes for a wonderful canvas when photographing the cats.
This is a great example of the green vegetation as the backdrop if the Kashane male – Photographed by Mike Sutherland
Male Lion at Sunset – Rich Laburn
June, July and August are mid-winter in South Africa and can be some of the best months for game viewing.
A beautiful night sky.
Winter Weather and golden colours
For the months September through November the weather is temperate and signals the change of season from autumn into summer. You will find a lot of the elephants making their way into the river in order to source water as the first rains have not yet come. As the first wet storm arrives we begin to see the migratory birds returning, the impala lambs popping up all over the place and the wild flowers start adding to the colours.
Elephants in the River – Elsa Young
Nicknamed ‘Chinese lanterns’, the sicklebush flowers come out in November.
One of the fist impala lambs of the season that has stood still for long enough to capture a picture. These new born lambs are extremely vulnerable, so it is understandable that they are quite skittish for the first few weeks of their lives.
With the months December through March being the height of our summer these are, therefore, the hottest months. The landscapes are filled with hundreds of wildebeest and impala on the horizons as all of them have been dropped which creates wonderful landscape opportunities. The days can get to upwards of 35 degrees celsius and in the late afternoons, their is the chance of an impressive African thunderstorm owing to the build up of heat and precipitation which can make for a great shot. This is also a time to bring out your macro lens as the dung beetles are rolling their dung balls rapidly!
The one thing that I love about the bushveld is the sheer abundance of the impala. They look so healthy, energetic and alive!
A dramatic Summer Thunderstorm
The dung beetles are out in swarms and make for very exciting sightings in the summer months! Generally you will see a dung ball being rolled by the male, with the female clinging to the side.
It is important to do some research prior to arrival. Have a look through some wildlife blogs, Facebook pages and nature photographers work of the area you plan to visit. Get an understanding visually of what can be achieved out here and set goals according to the season. Read a little on animal behaviour and learn from your guide and tracker to understand when to shoot and when to be patient. With a little knowledge, your photography will improve.
A Giraffe at sunset in winter
Written by: Kate Neill
With the African drums providing a steady background rhythm, I was sitting under a tree in a traditional Shangaan village waiting for a colleague to meet me.
Linah Lamula, dressed in traditional “shweshwe”, was leading a group of guests on a tour of the village and I overheard her explaining that the Shangaan are the “left people”.
The left people?
Linah the storyteller in the Shangaan traditional village.
I had not heard that before, and I was immediately interested in learning more. Not only because I wanted to know how the story came about, but also because the majority of people in Southern Africa, particularly in the region in and around Kruger National Park, are proud to call themselves descendants of the Shangaan or “Amashangana”.
Were they the left people, or was this a reference to something else? With the help of Linah, an actual Gogo of Shangaan descent, my research started with South Africa’s Mfecane.
What is the Mfecane?
The history of many southern African groups is heavily influenced by Shaka Zulu. A famous aggressor and conqueror, Shaka’s campaigns to expand his empire contributed to what is sometimes referred to by historians as Mfecane. Meaning “the crushing”, Mfecane describes a series of wars during the early decades of the nineteenth century that tore apart or displaced many societies of the southern African interior. Interestingly,Mfecane is the word used by the conquering groups. Difaqane, or “the scattering” is the term used by the victims.
For many of the details of this period of African history, historians rely on oral storytelling. However, in 2004 then President of South Africa, Thabo Mbeki, appointed a commission on tribal leadership disputes and claims, and the findings of that commission help to clarify (rather than ratify) some of the historical assumptions that have already been made.
Mfecane 1818 – 1835
The “King of Blood”
Linah tells me that she knows Shaka as “the king of blood”. According to Linah, this was a young man whose mother, Nandi, was not of royal lineage and so was banished from the royal AmaZulu household when Shaka was born.
“But it was clear that this was the son of a king” says Linah. “According to all evidence and stories that we are told, Shaka was extremely fierce and had an influence over other young men like no other leader. He was taught about organised fighting and he rallied young men, inspiring a militant feeling in them. When he was old enough, he put together a small army and was able to defeat his brother and assume leadership of the Zulus. He was known for his military expertise, but also for his cruelty, from setting hyenas on prisoners, to sacrificing young men at his mother’s funeral.”
Linah and Shaka Zulu
Soshangane Breaks Away
After winning back power of the Zulu kingdom, Shaka embarked on a campaign to incorporate neighbouring clans into his own. One of those clans was called “amaNdwandwe”. Shaka quickly defeated amaNdwandwe, killing the chief and leaving the clan’s military commander, Soshangane, in a precarious position.
One version of the story, supported by Linah, suggests that Soshangane was absorbed into Shaka’s army and sent to Mozambique on a military campaign. Another version suggests that Soshangane refused to be incorporated into the Zulu kingdom and fled with his followers to southern Mozambique.
What we do know is that Soshangane made it to Mozambique and, once there, did not return to the Zulu kingdom (in fact Shaka sent military troops after Soshangana).
Linah – while acknowledging that her story is the “shortened version” – postulates that Soshangane and his followers assimilated into the Mozambican “Thonga” communities, instating many of their own traditions, while adopting others, and formed the Amashangana community.
They abandoned their responsibilities to Shaka.
They chose not to return to a kingdom where they were regarded as “subjects”. They had found a new home, and settled amongst the Thonga.
“This is why the Shangaan are the ‘left people’” explains Linah. “Not because they were left, but because they themselves left their children and families behind when they settled in Mozambique. It was only supposed to be a raid, but they ended up leaving Zululand forever.
Many years later, during the Mozambican civil war of the 1980s, many Shangaan people fled Mozambique, travelling over the Lebombo Mountains, across the Kruger National Park, and settling in the area between the Kruger and the Drakensberg Mountains. Because this group of people spoke Tsonga, they were easily incorporated and welcomed into the South African Tsonga community that already existed in this area.”
As part of the Londolozi village tour, visitors are able to see a model of a traditional Shangaan village. Linah is a superb interpreter of culture, weaving into the history an understanding of how the ancient Shangaan political and social systems worked.
Have you been on a village walk with Linah? Are there any questions that you would like to ask about Shangaan history and culture? Please feel feel to ask in the comments section and I will discuss the question with Linah and offer her comments. We might even get some ideas for future blog posts.
Now imagine you were a hyena. Would you fancy your chances of robbing a pride of lions of their kill? An adult female hyena can weigh in the region of 80kgs whereas a big lioness can be nearly double that, and a male lion even more! An oft-quoted figure is that there would need to be 3 or 4 hyenas per lioness to even out the odds, with 4 or 5 per male lion. This is just throwing out figure without statistical backing, but it serves to highlight the fact that it’s really down to a numbers game.
If you were that same hyena, your chances of success against a leopard would be much, much higher. Yes, leopards hoist their kills, but if you can come across the carcass before it has been hoisted, it can be a simple matter of driving the leopard away. The leopard is much smaller than a lion, and being a solitary animal, is extremely reluctant to enter into a physical conflict in which it could get injured and lose it’s hunting ability.
A female leopard is much smaller than an adult male, and a large hyena should have no trouble in driving her off her kill. Added to this is the fact that a smaller leopard lacks the strength to hoist larger kills like adult impalas straight away, and prolonged time on the ground while the leopard eats some of the carcass, lightening it before hoisting, exposes her to a greater chance of hyena kleptoparasitism (stealing food that has been caught by another animal).
Maxabene 3:2 Young Male snarling at hyena while it sneaks in to find some scraps! – Photographed by Londolozi guest, Michael Moss
Considering the inherent risks involved in stealing from lions as opposed to leopards, it is not surprising that we see far more hyena vs leopard interaction on Londolozi. It seems that the lions only have to worry about other lions, and the hyenas focus their efforts on the smaller cats. Adopting an approach that focuses primarily on the spotted cats also means that hyenas can forage individually instead of as a clan, and this explains why hyenas encountered here are more often than not by themselves. We as rangers often get asked why the hyenas are not ‘hunting in packs’ like wildlife documentaries generally portray them as doing, and i hope this will go a little way to explain it.
However, hyena numbers are still down. A year ago we ran a post entitled ‘Where Have the Hyenas Gone?” that looked at this very issue. The Majingilane and the lion population in general have killed and pressurised the hyenas out of the central Londolozi areas. They are still here, and their tracks are everywhere, but with the Majingilane still maintaining a stranglehold on the central Sabi Sands, the hyena population has not recovered. Yet.
I can understand why the hyena’s are finding places to hide, coming across four Majingilanes is a terrifying thought!
Reports from the western sector are that the hyena population there is rife. Not so here. Leopards are still getting away with un-hoisted kills remaining on the ground overnight.
The further south you go on Londolozi, the further out of core Majingilane territory, the greater the chances of bumping into a hyena. Way down, beyond Tugwaan drive, the leopards still hoist as soon as possible. Recently, tracker Judas Ngomane, moving through the area with ranger Don Heyneke, caught a glimpse of a spotted golden coat at the base of a Weepin Boer Bean tree. Approaching, the two men saw a carcass hanging from the lower branches. The leopard was the Makhotini male, and in true opportunistic form, he had managed to snatch a buffalo calf from the fringes of the large herd that had passed through the day before. At the base of the tree were tracks and deep scuff marks where the enraged buffalo had tried to get at the leopard, but he had successfully hoisted his kill to safety and the buffalo had moved off.
Little was left of the carcass, but there was enough to attract the attention of two passing hyenas. Ranger lucien Beaumont managed to capture these images of the hyenas’ attempts to jump up to the meat:
The initial leap for the prize! Oh dear…I’m a little higher than I thought!
Let’s try that again!
So close but no luck!
This incident was remarkably similar to an attempt to rob a leopard seen a while ago in “The Comical Hyena”. So the hyenas are still here. We don’t see them quite as often, but when we do, it can be quite a spectacle!
Written by James Tyrrell
Photographed by Lucien Beaumont
It often doesn’t often work out when taking photographs directly into the sun, but every now and then it does and the result is breathtaking. Above taken on a Canon 5D mark III, f2.8, 1/1250, ISO 100
Young leopards tend to have a little more energy that the older crowd so one should always be ready for something different. While casually following a very full Vomba Young male he suddenly lunged into a tree after an irritating ‘Go-Away’ bird (a Grey Lourie). I tend to prepare for the unexpected so always have my settings ready for the best shot and then hope it happens. Canon 5D Mark III, f2.8, 1/250, ISO 100
A wild dog decides whether or not he should chew on my tire. Going back to the cropping ‘rule of thumbs’ the simple square crop would often be frowned upon but in this case I think it works well and sometimes due to the animals behaviour it is unavoidable. I’m not sure if you agree? Canon 5D Mark III, f2.8, 1/500, ISO 400
A Saddle Billed Stork probes for fish and frogs in a small pan. Canon 5D Mark III, f2.8, 1/3200, ISO 100
Summer is a time of babies, water, and lush vegetation but it is also a time of snakes. However to see a snake is very rare and on this occasion a few angry birds gave this snake away. Here is a Boomslang nestled in a buffalo thorn giving me a beady eye. Canon 5D Mark III, f2.8, 1/640, ISO 100
The Vomba young male catches a quick drink before disappearing into a thicket. Canon 5D Mark III, f3.5, 1/200 ISO 400
After a quick thundershower the last rays of the sun lit up the sky beautifully. Sun rises and sun sets are a major hit with all guests and there is no wrong way of taking them as it’s a case of capturing the colours. Canon 5D Mark III, f2.8, 1/160, ISO 400
The Nanga female leopard catches one of the late lambs just as it was getting dark. I don’t often change my ISO but in this case I had to as the light was gone and the photographs were looking rather blurry so always look at the light and adjust the ISO accordingly, preferably before the animal does something amazing. Canon 5D Mark III, f2.8, 1/200, ISO 800
The Marula season is in full swing, and the elephants love it. I found this pile of fresh elephant dung with a gem right in the middle Canon 5D Mark III, f6.3, 1/40, ISO 100
The lone ranger still very much king of his castle. With the weather looking rather ominous and the guests wavering I suggested we go out and search for the Cheetah and thank goodness we did. It adds a wonderful dynamic to game drives having the cheetahs back in play. Canon 5D Mark III, f2.8, 1/8000, ISO 500
‘I love my children, well…sometimes’ The dark maned male bonds with the Tsalala cubs. Canon 5D Mark III, f 2.8, 1/320, ISO 400
Campan, the warrior, poses for a quick shot with guests in the background. Canon 5D Mark III, f2.8, 1/1250, ISO 100
This photograph probably won’t win me any awards but it is none the less a very cute elephant calf, still wobbly on his feet and staysing very close to his mother. Canon 5D Mark III, f2.8, 1/200, ISO100
The Mashaba female leopard up in a Marula tree. Canon 5D Mark III, f2.8, 1/3200, ISO 400 This is my favourite of the week, which is yours?
Written and Photographed by Richard Burman
Outlined below are five secrets for creating a great composition in a photo, which is particularly useful for taking shots of wildlife and nature when you are traveling.
1. Read it like a book
We are taught from an early age that in order to read we move our eyes from left to right in order for the words and sentences to make sense. When something is learnt at such a tender time in our lives, it becomes second nature.
Because our brains are programmed in this way, we tend to use this habit in most things we do. This is the same when looking at a picture, the human brain will automatically ‘read’ the image from left to right. Bearing this in mind, one can compose an image in a way that keeps the ‘reader’ fascinated throughout your ‘story’.
In this image, the darker leaves on the left and the cheetah on the right, seem to draw your eyes through the negative space. I invite you to practice this tip by flipping your pictures and seeing which image you like better! Photographed by Kate Neill
Another wonderful example of leading the viewers eye from left to right. Photographed by Talley Smith
Pay attention to what you are wanting to portray in the image. This can be done well by using your point of view. ie if you are wanting to make your subject look insignificant or powerful you would be shooting either above or below them. Another way of portraying this would be to fill your frame with your subject to give it more importance or to shoot a larger depth of field to make it smaller in comparison to something else in the frame. Shoot vertically to enhance tall objects or to emphasise height and shoot horizontally to emphasise width.
To give this bull elephant the respect that he deserves and to portray the incredible power, I decided to make this a portrait shot and try and get the lowest angle possible. Do you think it works? Photographed by Kate Neill
Tsalala pride looking after their tiny little cubs. Mike has portrayed the protection beautifully in this shot with having only the nose of the female which is the size of the cubs head in the shot. It is incredibly subtly done.
3. An Odd Number of Subjects
This tip is known as the ‘odd rule’ and is especially true in wildlife photography. The “Odd Rule” basically suggests that a composition with an odd number of subjects works far better than one with an even number. There is no steadfast reason for why this would make a better compostion but my guess is that it has to do with the balance, which is also needed for an image to have a better feel to it. An example would be when you are photographing a herd of impala, for arguments sake, try and experiment with taking photographs of even and odd numbers of them and figure out which image ‘sits’ better with you.
Crested francolins joust in the morning light, most likely vying for the attentions of a female. Photographed by James Tyrrell
The ‘rule of odd’ often occurs naturally and is seen on the paw of this Sparta female. Photographed by James Tyrrell
A crash of White Rhino drink at Circuit Pan. Photographed by James Tyrrell
4. Crop with Care
Keep an eye on what is being excluded, including less is not always beneficial, try and tell a story and leave out things that dont add to that. Decide what story you are trying to tell and use the subjects available in order to do that. Bear in mind that you can always crop slightly in the editing process and that sometimes an image works best when there is more context shown, than less…
This photograph is pleasing to the eye and technically has all the elements is need, the light is amazing, the water droplets have been captured beautifully although when I look at it I am not enthralled by it.
Whereas when looking at this image, I am drawn in, there is a story here. This herd have walked long and far to find this water, the bare trees in the background give me the impression that the bush is dry. It has been a hot day and the sun is now setting over the lowveld which gives the beautiful orange colour to the image and they will soon move off from this water hole to scour food for the evening.
5. Guide the Viewer
Use leading lines to guide the viewer’s eye where you want it to go or to create an impression. Curves in a road, for example, can create an understanding for the viewer as to where the subject is going to or has come from. These lines can be made up from just about anything you see through your viewfinder: the curve of an animal, branches from a tree or an unusual shape on the horizon. See below for a couple of examples…
This picture photographed by Rich Laburn expresses this in the perfect manner. We know In this instance, the pack of wild dogs runs down the road away from the upset breeding herd, and even without knowing this, we get the impression that they are fleeing from something and disappearing into the distance.
The back of the Tamboti female’s neck, creates a natural curve which leads your eye onto her chest and across the photograph to her eye. – Rich Laburn
What other composition secrets would you add to this blog? Please leave your thoughts and comments in the section below…
Written by Kate Neill